The Cases of HIV in Kids
Even though anti-retroviral medicines (ARVs) and proper health care for pregnant women with HIV are now accessible, HIV infection among children is still a common occurrence. African-American infants have a higher risk of infection compared to infants of other races. In most cases, HIV-infected children were born to infected mothers while others received them from contaminated blood transfusions. In more developed countries, blood used for transfusions is screened and most pregnant women with HIV are prescribed ARVs to prevent perinatal transfer of the virus. If infected mothers do not have adequate medical care during their pregnancy, they could very easily pass on the infection to their newborns. Neonatal HIV infection commonly takes occurs in places where ARVs may not be readily accessible or where blood transfusions may not be routinely screened.
A child’s immune system is still underdeveloped and they have more dangerous reactions to HIV infection. Counts of CD4 cells, as well as viral cell counts, are more elevated in infants than in adults’. An infant’s viral load usually decreases until the age of four to five years when it stabilizes. Children can also have more unpredictable reactions to anti-HIV drugs. Their bodies comprise of more fat and water than adults’ therefore drug distribution is notably different and considerations must be taken when calculating doses. Children also have larger CD4 total cell counts and they tend to recuperate better in the case of immune reactions.
Children have faster rates of metabolism than adults. Metabolism rates will slow steadily as they grow older. Sites singapore hiv clinic of metabolism, particularly the liver, alter drug components and facilitate elimination from the body. Bones grow much faster during the first few years of life. ARVs can weaken bones of adults as well as of children. One factor regarding the development of HIV drugs for children is that it is very hard to conduct clinical trials on children. Drug companies have only recently started to conduct clinical trials on HIV-infected children in the US. Fortunately in America, studies HIV infection in children are steadily progressing. With the decline in rates of infection, there is now a lesser incidence of premature HIV cases.
Latest studies discovered that HIV-infected children who were performing well during treatment still had more behavioral problems and were more poorly developed than non-infected children. Children infected with HIV must be treated by pediatricians with sufficient experience in HIV treatment. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) works considerably well in children. The death rate in children with AIDS has decreased significantly compared to the adult death rate.
Accurate children’s doses depend primarily on body mass, which requires consideration of the child’s height and weight. Doses can be decreased or increased over time as the child matures. Popular dosage forms for children include liquids, powders and granules. Some pills and tablets can be crushed and incorporated into children’s food for easier administration. Several clinics teach children how to swallow pills properly in order to widen the range of medications available for the child.